Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties of Water

Desware Contents | Sample Chapters

Properties of Natural Water

Asghar Husain

M. M. Ali

Some Basic Chemical Principles

Chemical Composition of Natural Waters

Solubility in Water

Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Normal Seawater.

Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Water in the Liquid Phase

Asghar Husain

M.M. Ali

The Phases of Pure Water

Properties of Saturated Water and Steam

Properties of Compressed Liquid Water.

General Characteristics of Water

Asghar Husain

M.M. Ali

Pure Water

Natural Water


Energetic Aspects of Water

Biological Aspects of Water

Electrochemical Processes

Asghar Husain

Fraday's Law of Electrolysis

Electode Potential

Types & Performance of Cells


Biological Contamination of Water

Asghar Husain

G. P. Reddy

Range of Biological organisms Present in Water

Metabolism of Bioorganisms


Separation Thermodynamics

Asghar Husain

Relevant Thermodynamic Functions

Partial Molar Properties

Equilibrium Criteria

Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes

Equilibria Relevant to Desalination

Thermodynamic Properties

Introduction to Thermodynamics

Asghar Husain


Variables and Properties

First Law of Thermodynamics

Equations of State

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Equilibrium State

Chemical Reaction Equilibrium

Separation Phenomena in Desalination

Asghar Husain

Solar Stills

Freeze and Hydrate Separation

Ion Exchange

Distillation-Based Desalination Processes

Asghar Husain

Multiple Effect Boiling (MEB) Plants

Multistage Flash (MSF) Plants

Vapor Compression

Membrane-Based Desalination Processes

Asghar Husain

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Theory

Electrodialysis (ED) Theory

Some Practical Aspects of Desalination Processes

Asghar Husain

MEB Plants

MSF Plants

RO Plants

ED Plants

Limitations of the Membrane Processes

An Overview of Fouling

T. Reg. Bott

Categories of Fouling


T. Reg. Bott







Composite Fouling, Fundamentals and Mechanisms

R. Sheikholeslami

A.P. Watkinson

Crystallisation Fouling

Particulate Fouling

Corrosion Fouling

Composite Fouling

Composite Crystallisation and Particulate Fouling

Corrosion and Precipitation Fouling

Composite Corrosion and Particulate Deposition

Common Foulants in Desalination:Inorganic Salts

P. Koutsoukos

Description, overview (relative occurrence)

Calcium Carbonate

Calcium Sulfate

Magnesium hydroxide

Silica, Silicates


Biological Foulants

T.R. Bott


Crystallization Fouling

M. Jamialahmadi

H. Müller-Steinhagen

Chemical Fundamentals

Literature Review on scale formation in heat exchangers

Effect of Operating Parameters on scale formation

Models for scale formation on heat transfer surfaces

Scale formation in shell and tube heat exchangers.

Scale formation in plate and frame heat exchangers

Extended Surfaces

Change of Distiller Performance with Fouling

Frank Bodendieck and Klaus Genthner

Relationship between Fouling and steam consumption

Performance of the evaporator under different tube fouling conditions

The effect of various fouling conditions on various plant section