Renewable Energy Systems And Desalination

Desware Contents | Sample Chapters

A Short Historical Review of Renewable Energy

E. Delyannis1 and A. El-Nashar2

The renewable energies in the antiquity

The power of the sun

The development of solar distillation

The solar driven desalination

The energy of the mother gaia

The power of aeolos

The power of the moving waters

The impulsive power of poseidon

Renewable Energy Resources

V. Belessiotis and E. Delyannis

The sun as an energy source

The geothermal energy

The hydraulic energy

Wind energy resources

Biomass as an energy source

Thermal energy from biomass

The Ocean Systems Energy Resources

Desalination with Renewable Energy - A Review

Ali M. El-Nashar

Commercial Desalination Processes and Their Energy Consumption

Available Renewable Energy Sources

Devices for Transforming Renewable Energy into Useful Energy for Desalination

Coupling of Desalination Processes and Renewable Energy

Current Status

Selection Criteria among Different RE Desalination Technologies

Performance of Selected RE Desalination Projects

Economics of RE Desalination

Renewable Energy and Desalination Systems

Asghar Husain

What is Sustainability?

Review of Desalination Technologies

Desalination using Solar Energy

Desalination using other Renewable Energies

Why use Renewable Energy for Desalination

Ali M. El-Nashar

The need of desalination for economic development in the remote arid areas

The need of energy for desalination

The availability of renewable energy

The economic and social benefits of using renewable energy for desalination

Examples of arid remote regions where renewable energy for desalination can have a high economic potential

Thermal Energy Storage

Hassan E. S. Fath

Sensible Heat Storage

Latent Heat (Phase Change) Storage

Combined Sensible and Latent Heat Storage

Some Recent Developments

Electrical Energy Storage

J. Garche and A. Jossen

Systems with Internal Storage

Systems with External Storage

Storage Sizing

Tidal Energy

B. Sørensen



Economic Aspects

Environmental Consideration


Desalination Using Tidal Energy

Abdalla S. Hanafi


Tidal Power Plants

Tidal Desalination Technologies

Economic Comparisons with Wind and Solar Energy

Wave Energy

B. Sørensen



Economic Aspects

Environmental Consideration


Wind Energy

B. Sorensen

Worldwide distribution of wind energy resources

Wind turbine technology

Economic, Social and Environmental impacts of Wind energy utilization

Evaluation of greenhouse warming mitigation potential of wind power

Availability of Wind Energy and its Estimation

Richard Morris

The Sun as the wind driver

The Nature of wind

Wind power statistics

Estimating Wind Power

Siting for Wind Energy

The Use of Geothermal Energy in Desalination

B.W. Tleimat

A.D.K. Laird

Historical perspective

Heat transfer from geothermal reservoirs

Geothermal energy utilization

Electricity generation

Water production from geothermal sources

Idealized liquid-dominated reservoirs

Water and power generation: effects of some system parameters

Multiple-effect and multistage distillation processes Energy-budget management

Processes for decentralized desalination

Water-budget management

Solids-budget management

Solar Radiation Energy (Fundamentals)

L. Wald


Energy Emitted by the Sun

Sun-Earth Geometry - Time

Sun Geometry Perceived by an Observer - Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere

Concepts of Scattering and Absorption - Terrestrial Radiation

Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere - Spectral Distribution of the Radiation

Radiative Components at Ground Level

High Temperature Solar Concentrators

Robert Pitz-Paal


Theoretical Background

Concentration of Radiation

Conversion of Radiation to Heat

Conversion of Heat to Electricity

Technical Concepts

Parabolic Dishes

Central Receiver Systems

Solar Furnaces

Medium Temperature Solar Concentrators (Parabolic-Troughs Collectors)

E. Zarza


Parabolic-trough collectors: working principle and components

Optical, thermal and geometrical losses in a parabolic-trough collector

Energy flow and thermal energy delivered by a parabolic-trough collector

Design of solar fields with parabolic-trough collectors

Different ways to couple a parabolic-trough solar field with an industrial process

The Direct Steam Generation Technology

Thermal energy storage systems for parabolic-trough collectors

Electricity generation with parabolic-trough collectors

Low Temperature Solar Collectors

Soteris A. Kalogirou


Low Temperature Solar Collectors

Thermal Analysis of Collectors

Performance of Solar Collectors

Solar Collector Applications

Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

G. Schumm

The General Photovoltaic System

Non-concentrating PV systems

Tracking and Concentrating PV system


A. Luque and I. Tobías


What we see today


Photovoltaic generation

The solar resources

Photovoltaic applications


The future of PV

Flat-Plate Collectors

V.G. Belessiotis

Solar Collector aoolication


Main Collector Components

Characteristics of Flat-Plate Collectors

Dynamic characteristicsof a collector

The thermal characteristics of a collector

Shading of the Collectors

Basic calculation methods

The heat transfer loss coefficients

Large Active Solar System: Load

V.G. Belessiotis

Estimation of thermal load

Integration of solar Pond with Water Desalination

U. Fisher, J. Weinberg and B. Doron

Historical Background

The solar Pond

Desalination process coupled to the solar pond

Large Active Solar Systems: Typical Economic Analysis

V.G. Belessiotis

Cost of solar hot water systems

Cost of conventional hot water system

Effect of inflation

Rate of interest

Method of Life cycle cost


Present worth factor

Comparison Methodology

Evacuated Tube Collectors

Ali M. El-Nashar

Current Designs of Evacuated Tube Collectors

Thermal Analysis

Analysis of Flat Plate Evacuated Tube Collector

Analysis of Concentric-Tube Collector

Performance of Evacuated Tube Collectors

Case Study (Collector Field at the Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant)

Parabolic Trough Collectors

Wolfgang Meinecke

History of Trough development

State of the Art of trough applications

Trough Technologies

Prospects and Potential

Cost and economic aspects

Central Receivers

M.M. Elsayed

Heliostates: types and design shapes

Heliostat angles

Heliostat field: heliostat layout

Heliostat field: cosine effect

Heliostat field: preliminary sizing of the field

Heliostat field: usefulness efficiency

Reflected solar radiation

The effective sunshape

Principal images and relation between receiver and image planes

Models to predict the solar flux density distribution on the image plane

Solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface using the separation of variables/ superposition technique

Receivers: types and losses

Preliminary sizing of the receiver

Overall system optimization

Configuration, Theoretical Analysis and Performance of Simple Solar Stills

A. Kumar

Configuration of Simple Solar Stills

Theoretical Analysis of Simple Solar Stills

Performance of Solar stills

Development in Simple Solar Stills

Hassan E.S. Fath

Modified simple (passive) stills

Externally heated (active) stills

Other types of solar distillation systems

Multi-Effect Solar Stills

H.E.S. Fath

Why Multi Effect?

Double Effect Basin Stills

Multi Effect Multi Wick Stills

Multi Effect Diffusion Stills

Other Distillation Systems

Materials For Construction of Solar Stills

T.A. Lawand and J. Ayoub

General specifications of solar stills

Transparent cover

Evaporator liner

Solar still frame



Auxiliaries (piping, pumping and reservoirs)

Reverse Osmosis by Solar Energy

W. Bucher

Basic Parameters and energy demand for Osmosis

Solar Power conversion Systems

Reverse Osmosis system Configuration and Operation Aspects

Solar Powered desalination units


Solar Distillation

Gopal Nath Tiwari and Hriday Narayan Singh

Importance of Water

Water Pollution and its Effects

Principles of Solar Distillation: A State-of-the-Art

Classification of Solar Distillation Systems

Heat and Mass Transfer in Solar Distillation

Performance of Solar Still

Solar Photochemistry

Julián Blanco Gálvez and Sixto Malato Rodríguez

Solar Chemistry

Artificial Solar Photochemical Processes

Biological Photosynthetic Processes

Photochemical Synthetic Applications

Solar Photocatalytic Processes to Water Contaminants Treatment

Gas Phase Photocatalytic Treatment Processes

Pilot Scale Solar Photochemical Facilities

Photochemical Conversion of Solar Energy

S. Malato Rodríguez, J. Blanco Gálvez

Photochemistry Principles

The Solar Spectrum

Evaluation of Solar Photo Flux inside Photoreactors

Simplified Methods for Comparing Experiments when Working with Solar Radiation

Availability of Solar Radiation and its Estimation

V.G. Belessiotis

The sun and the radiation emitted

The extraterrestrial radiation

The co-ordinate systems: The basic solar angles

Computation of insolation at the earth' surface

Application of solar radiation

The impact of solar energy to the environment

Economics of Small Solar-Assisted Multiple-Effect Seawater Distillation Plants

Ali M. El-Nashar

System Configurations

Design and Sizing Considerations

Economic Ground Rules and Water Cost Optimization


A Solar-Assisted Sea water Multiple Effect Distillation Plant 15 Years Operating Performance

Ali M. El-Nashar

Basic Design Concept of Solar desalination

Performance During Commissioning tests

Performance History

Major Maintenance Activities

Evaluation of Water Cost

Mathematical Simulation of a Solar Desalination Plant

Ali M. El-Nashar

System description

System operating conditions

Mathematical Modeling of system components

Simulation Program

Mathematical Models of Solar Energy Conversion systems

Viorel Badescu


Properties of Radiation Fluxes

Concentration of Solar Radiation

Photothermal Conversion

Photovoltaic Conversion

Photochemical Conversion

Multiple Effect Distillation of Seawater Water Using Solar Energy - The Case of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant

Ali M. El-Nashar


History of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant

Description of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant

Measurements and Data Acquisition System

Data Analysis

Weather Condition in Abu Dhabi

Operating Characteristics

Plant Maintenance and Modifications

Simulation Program and its Validation

Evaluation of the Test Plant

Economic Considerations and Comparison with Conventional MED Plants

Results of the Economic Study

Solar Irradiation Fundamentals

Zekâi Şen

The Sun

Atmospheric effects and Electro-magnetic Radiation (EMR) spectrum

Astronomic effects

Meteorological effects

Topographic effects

Solar parameters

Solar radiation modeling

Astronomic calculations

Solar-Hydrogen Energy

Water Desalination by Humidification and Dehumidification of Air, Seawater Greenhouse Process

Karim Bourouni, Mohamed Thameur Chaibi and Ali Al Taee

Desalination Process by Humidification and Dehumidification

Seawater Greenhouse Process (SWGH): Principles and Fundamentals

Design of SWGH

Overview on the installed SWGH projects: Case Studies

A Perspective of Thermal Type Desalination: Technology, Current Development, and Thermodynamics Analysis

Zohreh Rahimi-Ahar and Mohammad Sadegh Hatamipour, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, I.R.Iran


Assessment of Recent Developments in Thermal Desalination Systems

Water and Power Production by Co-generation

Thermodynamics Analyses of Thermal Desalination Systems

Conclusion and Future Outlook

MED Desalination- Modelling, Design and Optimization

Zohreh Rahimi-Ahar and Mohammad Sadegh Hatamipour, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, I.R.Iran


The MED Classifications

Comparison of the MED with MSF and SWRO Desalting Systems

MED with Innovative Adsorption Cycle (MEDAD)

MED with Plate Heat Exchangers (PHEs)

Development of MED-TVC System

Thermal Analysis of large ME-TVC System

Key Performance Parameters and Characteristics of ME-TVC

Optimization of ME-TVC Desalination System

Comparison of Optimization of Multicolor and Four-Color Photothermal Power Plants In The Solar System

Viorel Badescu, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania and Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania


Omnicolar Photothermal and Photovoltaic Converters

Multicolor photothermal power plants

Four-color photothermal converters


Thermodynamics of Photovoltaic and Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems and Determination of Their Energy and Exergy Efficiencies

Rahul Rawat, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, New Delhi, India


Thermodynamics of Solar Photovoltaic Conversion

Upper Limit efficiencies of Photovoltaic energy conversion

Comparison of Theoretical and Practical Efficiencies of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

Conclusions and Perspectives

Large Scale MSF and MED Thermodynamic Modeling and Design

Mohamed A. Sharaf Eldean, Suez University, Suez, Egypt

Abdelnasser Mabrouk, Qatar Environment & Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar

A. M. Soliman, Jouf University, Sakaka, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

Hassan E.S. Fath, E-JUST Egypt–Japan University of Science & Technology, Alexandria, Egypt


Mathematical Modeling

Matlab/Simulink Modeling Environment

Design Results for Large Scale Desalination Plants

Conclusions and Perspectives

Desalination By Forward Osmosis: Failure, Success, and Future Expectations

Ibrar Ibrar, Daoud Khanafer, Sudesh Yadav, Salam Bakly, Jamshed Ali Khan, and Ali Altaee, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Australia


Introduction to Forward Osmosis

Drawbacks of Forward Osmosis Desalination

Successful Applications of Desalination

Future Applications of Desalination

Future Directions

The State of Desalination and Brine Production

Edward R. Jones, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Manzoor Qadir, United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), Hamilton, Canada


Desalination: Past Trends and Future Drivers

Global State of Desalination

Desalination: Considerations, Challenges and Opportunities

Global State of Brine Production

Brine production: Considerations, Challenges and Opportunities

Conclusion and Future Outlook

Thermodynamic Modelling of Hybrid Adsorption and Absorption Desalination Systems

V Baiju, Energy Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TKM College of Engineering, Kollam,Kerala, India

P Abhishek, Research scholar, A P J Abdul Kalam Technological University, Kerala, India

Back Ground

An Overview of Conventional Desalination System

Features of Adsorption – Adsorption Principle, Adsorbent and Refrigerants

Hybrid Adsorption System Cogenerating Desalination and Cooling Effect

Developments in Adsorption Desalination System: Different Configurations

Absorption Desalination System- An Overview

Large Scale Absorption Desalination System

Installations of the Adsorption and Absorption Desalination Systems

Direct-Contact Dehumidification As A Sustainable Fresh Water Production Technique: A Review

Abubaker Sayed Omer, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University

Abdulrahim M. Al-Ismaili, Department of Soils, Water and Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University

Nasser A. Al-Azri, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University


Applications of DCDs in HDH systems

Sustainable DCD systems

Effectiveness of DCDs

Concluding remarks

Thermodynamic Analysis of Processes

Ryszard (Richard) Petela, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Importance of Thermodynamic Analysis

Considered System

Mass Conservation Equations

Energy Analysis

Entropy Growth

Exergy Analysis


Conclusion with illustrative exemplary observations

Exergy of Solar Radiation

Ryszard (Richard) Petela, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Significance of Exergy

Photon gas

Exergy of Emission

Exergy of Arbitrary Radiation

Exergy of Solar Radiation

Concentration of Solar Radiation


Overall Performance Assessment of an Integrated Solar Power Plant - Energy, Exergy and Exergo-Economic Analysis

Ahmet Z. Sahin and Kehinde G. Ismaila, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia


Description of the Power Plant

Thermodynamic Analysis

Economic Analysis

Exergo-Economic Assessment

Single Objective Optimization

Overall Performance Index h

Conclusions and Perspectives

Plant Availability of Seawater Desalination on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology

Masaru Kurihara, Toray Industries, Inc., 3-2-1 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-0842, Japan

Hiromu Takeuchi, Toray Industries, Inc., 2-1-1 Nihonbashi-muromachi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8666, Japan


Current global market status of SWRO plants

Results and Discussion


Critical Review Of Solar Power Systems (CSP): Solar Tower (ST) Systems Versus Parabolic Trough (PT) Systems

Huseyin Murat Cekirge, Mechanical Engineering, City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, USA & Mechanical Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, USA

Serdar Eser Erturan, Mechanical Engineering, City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, USA

Richard Stanley Thorsen, Mechanical Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, USA


Description of the Power Plant

Thermodynamic Analysis

Economic Analysis

Exergo-Economic Assessment

Single Objective Optimization

Conclusions and Perspectives

Wetting Phenomena in Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination

Mohammad Rezaei, Institute of Process Engineering, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.

Marek Gryta, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Poland.

Muhammad R. Bilad, Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia

Alba Ruiz-Aguirre, Plataforma Solar de Almería  CIEMAT, Ctra. de Senés s/n km. 4, 04200, Tabernas, Spain

Hamid Fattahi Juybari, Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA

Jianhua Zhang, Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia

Lebea N. Nthunya, Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

Patrick Loulergue, Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes) Â UMR 6226, France

Mark W. Hlawitschka, Institute of Process Engineering, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria


Principles and Configurations of MD

Challenges in Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination

Wetting Phenomena in Membrane Distillation

Mechanism of Wetting

Wetting Characteristics

Methods of Wetting Detection

Effects of Operational Parameters on Wetting

Models of Wetting

Wetting Prevention and Control

Membrane Design Approach

In-Process Approach

Pilot and Industrial-Scale Considerations

Reversing Membrane Wetting

Conclusions and Perspectives

Simulation of Solar Thermal Power Plants

Jayanta Kumar Nayak and Anish Modi, Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of TechnologyBombay, Maharashtra, India


Solar Thermal Power Plants

Simulation Methods and Tools


Exergo-Economics Of Desalination Systems

Muhammad Ahmad Jamila and Muhammad Wakil Shahzada, Mechanical and Construction Engineering Department, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK

Syed Muhammad Zubairb, Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Researcher at K.A.CARE Energy Research and Innovation Center at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia


Desalination processes

Thermodynamic analysis formulation

Exergo-economic analysis

Roadmap for Sustainable Water Supplies

Thermodynamics, Exergy, and Energy Efficiency of Cogeneration

P.L. Dhar, Ex Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, INDIA


Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

Maximum Work Potential of Open Systems

Cogeneration in Thermal Power Plants

Cogeneration in Solar Power Plants

Exergy Analysis and Sustainability

Concluding Remarks

Energy and Exergy Performance Analysis of an Evacuated Multi-Stage Solar Water Desalination System

H. Sharon, P. Venkata Sai, K.S. Reddy, Heat Transfer and Thermal Power Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India


Solar Thermal Desalination – Fundamentals and Concepts

Solar Thermal Desalination Processes for Potable Water Production

Multi-Stage Solar Desalination Systems

Energy and Exergy Analysis of Evacuated Multi-Stage Solar Desalination System

Parameters Influencing Performance of Evacuated Multi-stage/Effect Solar Desalination Units

Enviro-Economic Assessment

Distribution of Desalination Systems and Demonstration of Some Solar Multi-Stage Units

Conclusions and Perspectives